History of Counseling Psychology

Counseling psychology emerged as a distinctive applied specialty within the American Psychological Association (APA) during the 1940s. Its formal recognition as a specialty by the APA occurred in 1946, marking a pivotal moment in its establishment as a recognized field of expertise. In 1998, the APA reaffirmed its recognition of counseling psychology as a specialty during a new period of application for specialty status.

Throughout its history, counseling psychology has reached several significant landmarks that have shaped its development and establishment within the broader field of psychology. Among these milestones, the establishment of counseling psychology as a distinct discipline in relation to the overall profession of psychology stands as a crucial turning point. This recognition allowed counseling psychologists to carve out their unique identity and focus on providing specialized services to clients.

Key professional journals in counseling psychology have played a vital role in disseminating knowledge and research findings within the field. These journals have served as platforms for academic discourse and have contributed to the growth and maturation of counseling psychology as a scientific discipline.

Conferences held over the years have also been instrumental in shaping the field of counseling psychology. These gatherings have provided opportunities for scholars, practitioners, and students to exchange ideas, present research findings, and engage in discussions that have advanced the understanding and practice of counseling psychology.

Among the organizations that have significantly contributed to the formation and development of counseling psychology are the Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP) and the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTP). SCP, previously known as “Division 17,” has been a driving force in promoting research, education, and practice in counseling psychology. Its efforts have strengthened the professional identity and visibility of counseling psychologists.

On the other hand, CCPTP has played a crucial role in overseeing and advancing the quality of training programs in counseling psychology. By providing guidance and support to directors of these programs, CCPTP has fostered excellence in education and training within the field.

As counseling psychology continues to evolve, it remains essential for historians and professionals in the field to acknowledge the contributions of these organizations and recognize the legacy left by their predecessors. By appreciating the historical context, counseling psychologists can build upon the foundation laid by earlier generations and continue to propel the field forward into the future.

John Whiteley, a prominent historian of counseling psychology, traces the roots of the field back to several movements that laid its foundation. These early seeds can be found in the vocational guidance, mental hygiene, and psychometrics/individual differences movements. Additionally, the emergence of nonmedical and nonpsychoanalytic forms of counseling interventions, exemplified by Carl Rogers’s person-centered therapy, contributed to the development of counseling psychology.

The growth of counseling psychology gained momentum due to the demand for psychological services after World War II, with many veterans returning in need of support. Collaborations between representatives from APA’s divisions 12 (Clinical Psychology) and 17 (then called Counseling and Guidance) and the Veterans Administration’s Central Office Staff in Clinical Psychology led to the establishment of a new position for psychologists in the VA system called “Counseling Psychologist (Vocational)” in 1952. This position aimed to assist veterans in readjusting to civilian life by focusing on vocational guidance and employment opportunities. This differentiation from psychiatry and clinical psychology helped counseling psychology establish its unique identity and led to the growth of the vocational guidance movement.

In 1946, APA officially recognized Division 17 as Counseling and Guidance, further solidifying the field’s standing as a distinct specialty. Counseling psychology topics began to be regularly reviewed in prestigious publications like the Annual Review of Psychology, providing a platform for comprehensive evaluation of the field’s literature and reinforcing its legitimacy.

The 1950s saw a surge in enrollment in higher education, driven by the needs of returning World War II veterans. This period witnessed significant research and development in the areas of career development and counseling orientations. Various theories of human development and behavior emerged, shaped by the economic and social forces of the time. The counseling psychology landscape expanded to encompass client-centered, directive, learning, psychodynamic, humanistic, and existential theories.

An important milestone in the early history of counseling psychology was the Northwestern conference held in 1951. This conference, spearheaded by T. C. Gilbert Wrenn, the president of Division 17 at the time, focused on defining the content of training for doctoral-level counseling psychologists, particularly in the context of practicum training. It resulted in the establishment of the first set of standards for doctoral training in counseling psychology and the formation of the Division 17 Committee on Definition.

In 1956, the Committee on Definition, led by Donald Super, who would become the next president of Division 17, presented a comprehensive report titled “Counseling Psychology as a Specialty.” This report aimed to create a more inclusive statement defining counseling psychology and clarifying its functions and boundaries. Super’s efforts further emphasized the need to differentiate between counseling and clinical psychology.

These historical landmarks and developments laid the groundwork for counseling psychology’s growth and evolution as a distinct and essential field within the broader landscape of psychology. As the field continues to advance, it is essential to recognize and build upon this rich history to shape its future effectively.

In 1952 the official name of Division 17 was changed to Counseling Psychology, and the American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology announced that its diplomas would include the term Counseling Psychology rather than Counseling and Guidance. The appearance of the Journal of Counseling Psychology in 1954 and the continued reviews in Annual Review of Psychology helped further establish the professional identity of counseling psychology.

A Crisis of Identity

Following a period of significant scientific and theoretical advancements, counseling psychology faced a crisis of identity as different perspectives emerged regarding its role and definition. This divergence became evident in Milton E. Hahn’s Division 17 presidential address in 1954, where he sought to distinguish counseling psychology from clinical psychology. Hahn emphasized that although training in clinical and counseling doctoral programs shared similarities, students were being prepared for distinct professional roles and functions.

Hahn’s view highlighted that counseling psychologists focused on working with less severely disturbed individuals and engaged in research and administration. Their primary concerns revolved around helping clients with vocational issues, facilitating attitude and value system changes, and promoting psychological strengths and well-being. On the other hand, clinical psychologists were more inclined towards personality reorganization and tended to work in medically related settings.

Despite attempts to address the crisis of identity, the disagreement persisted, leading the APA Education and Training Board to commission four appraisals in 1959 to evaluate the status of counseling psychology. These reports presented varying and conflicting perspectives, resulting in the suppression of one of the reports and the remaining three being unpublished for two decades. The most pessimistic report claimed that counseling psychology was in decline and lacked a solid scientific foundation.

Responding promptly to the negative assessments, leaders within the specialty, including Leona Tyler, David Tiedeman, and C. Gilbert Wrenn, formulated a robust response to counter the prevailing pessimism. Their statement presented a well-documented historical grounding of counseling psychology, citing official statements on definition and education and training, along with studies of the roles and functions of counseling psychologists. Additionally, they highlighted the societal demands for counseling psychologists.

The response was approved by the Executive Committees of the Division of Counseling Psychology for the years 1960-1961 and 1961-1962, reaffirming the specialty’s significance and countering the doubts raised by the critical assessments. Despite this response, the crisis of identity continued to challenge counseling psychology, and the field had to grapple with further exploration and clarification of its core principles and defining characteristics.

A Pivotal Conference

The Greyston conference, held in 1964, marked a pivotal moment in the history of counseling psychology. At the time, the field was grappling with identity issues and uncertainties about its future direction. The conference aimed to address these concerns by thoroughly examining the professional preparation and work of counseling psychologists and formulating specific recommendations to move the specialty forward.

Six formal papers were presented during the conference, offering a valuable starting point for the discussions. These papers delved into the historical development of counseling psychology and explored the key identity issues faced by the profession. They provided valuable insights into the evolution of the specialty and shed light on the challenges and opportunities that lay ahead.

Following the conference, a formal report was issued, encapsulating the outcomes of the extensive discussions. This report provided a comprehensive overview of the counseling psychology profession. It presented a thorough review of the various positions that counseling psychologists held, shedding light on the diverse roles and functions they performed within the field. Additionally, the report examined the different settings in which counseling psychologists worked, showcasing the broad scope and reach of their contributions to society.

The conference report also highlighted the importance of official documents and statements from Division 17, which played a crucial role in shaping the profession. These documents served as a foundation for the specialty and guided the ethical principles and standards upheld by counseling psychologists.

Overall, the Greyston conference played a pivotal role in clarifying the professional identity of counseling psychology and charting a path for its future development. It provided valuable insights into the diverse roles and contributions of counseling psychologists, paving the way for continued growth and recognition within the broader field of psychology.

The First Formal Definition

In a significant development for the field of counseling psychology, the first formal and widely circulated definition of the specialty was published in 1968. Prior to this, statements on the definition of counseling psychology had been mostly circulated within the membership of Division 17. The new comprehensive definition was a collaborative effort initiated by the Professional Affairs Committee of Division 17 and officially sanctioned by the division’s Executive Committee.

The definition, which was published by the Teacher’s College Press and copyrighted by the APA, aimed to provide a clear and encompassing description of counseling psychology as a distinct discipline within the broader field of psychology. It highlighted the multifaceted roles and responsibilities of counseling psychologists, emphasizing their involvement in administrative tasks, professional practice, and research.

Three distinct roles were delineated for counseling psychologists in the definition. First, they were described as engaging in remedial or rehabilitative work, assisting individuals in overcoming challenges and difficulties to improve their psychological well-being. Second, counseling psychologists were acknowledged for their preventive efforts, working proactively to promote mental health and prevent potential psychological issues from arising.

The third role outlined in the definition emphasized the educative and developmental aspects of counseling psychology. This highlighted the crucial role of counseling psychologists in facilitating personal growth, self-discovery, and positive development in individuals across the lifespan.

The definition also provided valuable insights into the various job opportunities available to counseling psychologists and the diverse settings in which they practiced. This encompassed a range of work environments, including educational institutions, healthcare facilities, community centers, and private practices.

By presenting a comprehensive and widely disseminated definition, counseling psychology gained greater recognition and understanding both within the profession and among the general public. The formal definition served as a foundation for shaping the professional identity of counseling psychologists and guiding their practice and research efforts. It laid the groundwork for continued growth and refinement within the field, solidifying counseling psychology as an essential and dynamic specialty within the broader landscape of psychology.

A Second Journal Established

In 1969, a significant milestone in the field of counseling psychology was achieved with the establishment of The Counseling Psychologist journal. The inception of this influential publication was the brainchild of founding editor John M. Whiteley, and it was embraced as the official journal of the Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP).

The uniqueness of The Counseling Psychologist lies in its distinctive format. Each issue is centered around specific topics of interest within the realm of counseling psychology and features a major contribution authored by renowned experts. Accompanying this contribution are invited critical analyses from prominent scholars or practitioners in the field. Subsequently, the authors of the major contribution are offered an opportunity to respond to these critiques, fostering an interactive and intellectually stimulating exchange of ideas.

Throughout its history, The Counseling Psychologist has been dedicated to addressing substantive research and fostering discussions on crucial aspects of counseling psychology. Its issues have delved into diverse subjects such as human development, counseling theory, counseling methods, and professional concerns, reflecting the broad spectrum of the discipline’s interests.

Early contributions to the journal covered essential topics such as vocational development theory, client-centered therapy, student unrest, and behavior counseling. In more recent times, The Counseling Psychologist has continued to stay at the forefront of contemporary developments within the field. Major contributions in recent issues have explored crucial themes like Social Justice and Multicultural Competence in Counseling Psychology, A Work-Oriented Midcareer Development Model, Evidence-Based Scientist-Practitioner Training, and the Internationalization of Counseling Psychology.

Beyond serving as a platform for cutting-edge research and theoretical discussions, The Counseling Psychologist has also functioned as an invaluable repository of historical material and debates about the professional identity of counseling psychologists. As a testament to its significance in the field, the journal now includes additional content, such as the publication of SCP Executive Board meeting minutes and the yearly presidential address.

Through its rich and dynamic history, The Counseling Psychologist has played an integral role in shaping the trajectory of counseling psychology as a specialized discipline. By providing a platform for scholarly discourse, critical analysis, and professional insights, the journal continues to foster the growth and evolution of counseling psychology, while facilitating meaningful dialogue among practitioners and researchers in the field.

The 1960s and Early 1970s

The 1960s and early 1970s marked a transformative period for counseling psychology, as changing social attitudes and cultural shifts had a profound impact on the field. Various factors, including the Vietnam War, the rise of self-actualization concepts in the 1970s, and challenges to traditional authority during the Watergate era, contributed to the evolving landscape.

Society underwent significant changes, with a growing emphasis on equality and equal rights for marginalized groups such as racial and ethnic minorities, women, and individuals with physical challenges. In response, counseling psychologists recognized the importance of addressing cultural diversity and fostering inclusivity. The focus shifted towards psychoeducation and prevention, aligning with the prevailing trend of seeking personal fulfillment and self-realization in the 1960s.

During this era, counseling psychologists’ expertise in cultural and individual diversity issues gained prominence and became an integral part of their practice. They embraced the cultural themes of personal growth and the exploration of interpersonal relationships, leading to an increased demand for their services across a wide range of employment settings.

As counseling psychologists engaged with diverse clients, two major theoretical approaches were under discussion: behavior therapy and existential counseling. Researchers and practitioners continued to delve into theories of career, occupational, vocational, and personality development, as well as advancements in psychotherapy and counseling techniques.

Amidst these changes, counseling psychology evolved to meet the needs of a changing society, expanding its focus beyond traditional concerns to encompass a broader understanding of human experiences and challenges. As the field adapted to these shifting dynamics, it laid the groundwork for continued growth and development in the decades that followed.

Further Initiatives in Identity

The late 1970s and early 1980s marked a period of significant initiatives aimed at further exploring and solidifying the professional identity of counseling psychology. Four key initiatives emerged during this time, each contributing to the field’s growth and future direction.

The first initiative, led by Bruce Fretz, involved gathering perspectives on professional identity from various stakeholders, including individuals who primarily identified as counseling psychologists, professionals closely associated with counseling psychologists, and former presidents of SCP. Published in The Counseling Psychologist in 1977, these diverse views provided valuable insights into the evolving identity of the specialty.

The second initiative, spearheaded by John M. Whiteley, focused on projecting the adaptations needed for counseling psychology to thrive in the 21st century. Collaborating with Fretz, they published a book and an issue of The Counseling Psychologist that explored the future of counseling psychology, laying the groundwork for its continued development.

The APA’s involvement marked the third initiative, as it aimed to further define specialties within psychology by issuing statements on significant characteristics, certification, and licensing specific to counseling psychologists. This endeavor aimed to clarify the role and scope of the specialty within the broader field of psychology.

The fourth initiative, known as the Next Decade Project, was launched by Division 17 and led by Norman Kagan. This comprehensive project identified challenges and set a strategic direction for professional practice, education and training, definitional concerns, and scientific affairs within counseling psychology. It sought to strengthen the future of the profession and enhance its visibility to students and other professions.

During this period, counseling psychology also saw notable advancements in research and publications. Reviews of counseling psychology research were published in the Annual Review of Psychology, focusing on career development, counseling interventions, and vocational psychology. Handbooks on counseling psychology and vocational psychology were published, further solidifying the specialty’s professional identity.

The theoretical and research literature continued to thrive, exploring areas such as psychometrics, college student development, career and vocational psychology, and counseling interventions. The Book Series in Counseling Psychology and The Counseling Psychologist published several volumes on theoretical approaches, counseling supervision, and professional roles and settings.

Inclusivity and diversity became increasingly important themes, as two separate issues of The Counseling Psychologist addressed counseling men and women, foreshadowing the growing diversity movement within counseling psychology.

Overall, these initiatives and developments contributed to the consolidation and growth of counseling psychology, enhancing its professional identity and preparing it to meet the challenges and opportunities of the future.

Emphasis on Diversity

In the late 1980s and 1990s, the significance of cultural and individual diversity became increasingly pronounced in counseling psychology, mirroring broader shifts in the field of psychology and society as a whole. Counseling psychology’s roots in career and vocational psychology, which emphasized individual differences and strengths, laid the groundwork for its attention to diversity-related issues. Throughout the years, counseling psychologists have played a leading role in producing substantial scholarship on diversity and have been at the forefront of promoting inclusivity within organized psychology.

The recognition of diversity issues began with the APA’s Task Force on the Status of Women in 1970, which featured numerous counseling psychologists and focused on addressing women’s experiences in the profession. In 1973, Division 35: The Psychology of Women was established, with many counseling psychologists as members, further solidifying the specialty’s commitment to issues of gender and identity.

In the 1980s, the spotlight expanded to encompass race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, prompting Division 17 to undertake three key initiatives. These efforts aimed at increasing diversity within the governing body of Division 17, fostering diverse representation among students in counseling psychology programs, and diversifying the theoretical and methodological foundations of the specialty.

In 2002, counseling psychologists, in collaboration with Division 45, crafted guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organization, endorsed by the APA Council of Representatives. These guidelines, led by prominent counseling psychologists Nadya Fouad, Patricia Arredondo, Allen Ivey, and Michael D’Andrea, aimed to promote cultural awareness within the field of psychology, provide evidence-based recommendations, guide further education in cultural awareness, and broaden the profession’s perspectives.

Other guidelines addressing diverse groups, such as gay, lesbian, bisexual clients, older adults, and women and girls, have also been developed with the involvement of counseling psychologists. The profession has continuously sought to be inclusive and responsive to the unique needs and experiences of diverse populations.

In organizational efforts, counseling psychology has taken steps to ensure diversity representation, including reserving an APA Council of Representatives seat for a minority individual within the SCP. Additionally, sections and interest groups within the SCP have formed around topics of racial and ethnic diversity, women’s advancement, LGBTQ+ awareness, older adults, and men and masculinity, further promoting a diverse and inclusive professional community.

Independent Practice

As the 1980s transitioned into the 1990s, counseling psychology faced a series of emerging challenges due to a growing number of program graduates venturing into independent practice. This shift brought about various new issues that demanded the attention and adaptation of the field. In the past, psychologists primarily received payment directly from their clients or from the government, but the 1980s and 1990s saw a rise in mental health coverage within health insurance policies, leading to an influx of third-party payers. This change in payment methods brought with it a host of complexities that counseling psychology needed to navigate.

In response to these evolving circumstances, the Section on Independent Practice was established in 1996 as part of Division 17. Its purpose was to address the unique challenges faced by counseling psychologists engaged in independent practice. As more counseling psychologists ventured into private practice, it became evident that the specialty required a unified voice to advocate for its interests in the realm of professional and legal matters. The field’s involvement in ongoing debates surrounding professional practice and healthcare policy was essential to safeguard its role and contributions in the healthcare system.

The 1990s saw an increase in scrutiny of healthcare professions, leading to the development of new laws and policies that directly impacted counseling psychologists’ operations within the healthcare landscape. It became vital for Division 17 to actively participate in shaping these regulations and policies to ensure that counseling psychology’s unique needs and contributions were adequately represented.

In recognition of the importance of federal advocacy, the SCP appointed Sandy Shullman as the first federal advocacy coordinator in 1995. This role played a crucial part in liaising with policymakers and advocating for counseling psychology’s interests at the federal level. With this position, counseling psychologists could actively engage in shaping legislative decisions and policies that influenced the profession’s functioning and scope of practice within the healthcare domain.

The evolving landscape of independent practice presented counseling psychology with both challenges and opportunities. By establishing the Section on Independent Practice and embracing federal advocacy efforts, the specialty of counseling psychology aimed to adapt and thrive amidst the changing healthcare landscape while safeguarding its core values and contributions to mental health and well-being.

Reorganizations of Division 17

In the early 1990s, leaders of Division 17 recognized the need for a reorganization to meet the evolving demands of counseling psychology. To address this, the Executive Board, under the guidance of Puncky Heppner and Jean Carter, held a retreat in 1992 to devise a comprehensive plan. Over the course of three years, from 1993 to 1995, the plan was implemented, reshaping the division’s structure and enhancing its effectiveness.

The key focus of the reorganization was to mirror the governing structure of the APA, facilitating better coordination and communication within the division. One of the major changes was the introduction of new groups based on shared interests among members. These groups included sections, which consisted of 50 or more members with common interests, and special interest groups for 10 to 49 members. Additionally, special task groups were created by the president to achieve specific objectives, promoting a more agile and dynamic approach to addressing emerging needs.

In line with the division’s commitment to inclusivity and representation, new vice president positions were established to tackle critical issues within counseling psychology. These vice president roles encompassed diversity and public interest, education and training, professional practice, and scientific affairs. These positions allowed for a focused and dedicated approach to advancing counseling psychology in vital areas.

In 2002, the division underwent another significant transformation by officially changing its name to the Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP). This name change aimed to reinforce the SCP’s distinct identity and autonomy within the APA. Moreover, it sought to provide clarity to students and professionals seeking to understand the various divisions within the APA.

Continuing the trajectory of adaptability and growth, in 2006, a proposal was introduced to amend the SCP bylaws once again, introducing the position of vice president of communication. This role was established to enhance information transfer within the SCP membership, to APA and other professional organizations, and to the general public. Effective communication played a pivotal role in ensuring that the SCP’s contributions, initiatives, and advancements reached a broader audience, increasing awareness and fostering collaboration.

Through these reorganizations and adaptations, the Society of Counseling Psychology continually strives to remain at the forefront of counseling psychology, supporting its members and advocating for the field’s advancement within the broader landscape of psychology and mental health.

The Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs

The Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTP) was established in 1975 with dual objectives. Firstly, it sought to be the representative body for counseling psychologists, actively addressing education and training matters that pertain to the field. Secondly, CCPTP aimed to disseminate relevant information on education and training to all stakeholders involved in this domain. Over the years, CCPTP has played a pivotal role in monitoring accreditation issues, gathering critical data on counseling psychology programs, faculty, and students, and formulating model policies and curricula.

In a significant collaboration with Division 17, CCPTP spearheaded a joint initiative in 1998 resulting in the development of the Model Training Program in counseling psychology. This groundbreaking endeavor not only outlines the philosophical foundations endorsed by counseling psychology training programs, such as the scientist-practitioner model and the orientation towards strengths rather than pathology, but also identifies the essential content areas integral to education and training in counseling psychology. These content areas extend beyond the core components of professional psychology, encompassing vital domains like supervision, career and vocational psychology, and embracing the celebration of diversity.

As a leading body in counseling psychology education, CCPTP continues to play a crucial role in shaping the future of training programs, promoting excellence in education, and supporting the growth of counseling psychology as a distinctive and impactful specialty within the field of psychology. By fostering collaboration among training programs and disseminating best practices, CCPTP ensures that counseling psychologists are well-equipped to address the diverse and complex needs of their clients and communities.

Contributions to Supervision

In the late 1970s, counseling psychologists turned their attention to a crucial aspect of their professional development: the supervisory relationship. While the concept of supervision had been pondered since the early days of psychology training, it wasn’t until later years that comprehensive research and theory on the subject began to flourish. In 1979, J. M. Littrell, N. Lee-Borden, and J. A. Lorenz introduced a model of the supervision relationship, marking an important milestone in the field. This model was followed by the contributions of Carol Loganbill, Emily Hardy, and Ursula Delworth in 1982, and later by Cal Stoltenberg and Delworth in 1987, further advancing the understanding and practice of supervision.

The introduction of these supervisory models sparked a surge of interest in theoretical and empirical research on supervision, a trend that continues to thrive into the 21st century. Today, supervision plays an indispensable role in the education and training of counseling psychologists, gaining recognition as a fundamental element in the Model Training Program.

As counseling psychologists continue to delve deeper into the nuances of supervision, they uncover its profound impact on the professional growth and competence of practitioners. The supervisory relationship is seen as a dynamic and evolving process, one that profoundly influences the development of counseling skills, the understanding of ethical principles, and the integration of theoretical knowledge into practical applications.

With a growing emphasis on evidence-based practice and competency-based training, the study of supervision takes center stage in the quest for effective and ethical counseling practices. Moreover, as diversity and multicultural issues gain prominence in counseling psychology, supervision also becomes a vehicle for addressing the unique challenges posed by clients from various backgrounds.

As the field of supervision evolves, counseling psychologists remain committed to refining their approaches, embracing innovative techniques, and nurturing collaborative and supportive supervisory relationships. The ongoing exploration of supervision enriches the field of counseling psychology, ensuring the highest standards of professional competence and ethical practice among its practitioners.

Integrating Science and Practice

The quest to balance scholarship and practice within Division 17, the Society of Counseling Psychology, has been an ongoing debate, focusing on how to effectively integrate the scientist-practitioner model. Throughout the early years of the division, its governing body was predominantly comprised of full-time academic psychologists. However, in the 1980s and particularly after the division’s reorganization in the 1990s, there was a significant increase in the representation of full-time practitioners of counseling psychology.

In the early 1990s, a task force was formed with the specific aim of developing recommendations for effectively integrating science and practice within counseling psychology. Chaired by Puncky Heppner, this task force released its recommendations in 1992, highlighting the importance of infusing scientific principles into doctoral training and providing counseling psychology students with comprehensive training in research methods.

The journey of integrating science and practice in counseling psychology has seen significant contributions from professionals in the field. Notably, counseling psychologists responded to clinical psychology’s efforts to compile a list of empirically supported treatments by formulating their own position on the matter. This led to the SCP Executive Board establishing a special task group in 2004 to further advocate for their stance. APA also recognized the significance of this integration and formed a special task group in 2005 to develop recommendations on the matter, including representation from counseling psychology. As a result, APA implemented a new policy on evidence-based practice in 2005, incorporating the insights and contributions from the counseling psychology community.

As the 2000s unfolded, counseling psychology continued to maintain its status as a vital force in the domain of professional psychology. Its members contributed significantly to the field and the public through research, training, practice, and service. Despite their diverse roles in various settings and occupations, counseling psychologists steadfastly upheld their focus on client strengths and resources, emphasizing preventive, educative, and remedial interventions.

As the integration of science and practice remains an essential concern for counseling psychologists, the field continues to evolve, keeping abreast of advancements and seeking innovative ways to enhance the integration of scholarship and practical applications. The dedication and commitment of counseling psychologists ensure that the specialty remains at the forefront of progressive and impactful developments in the realm of counseling and psychological services.


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