Low Birth Weight (LBW)

The  United  States  is  unsurpassed  in  its  ability to rescue the very smallest infants; infants who weigh only 750 g at birth are now surviving. However, these rescue efforts are often associated with significant long-term health and developmental problems among survivors.  In  1950,  the World  Health  Organization adopted the figure of less than 2,500 g… Continue reading Low Birth Weight (LBW)


Labor is defined as contractions that change the uterine cervix, which results eventually in the delivery of the fetus. Labor is considered one of the most intense experiences of pain widely encountered. The cause of pain might be explained by hypoxia of the contracted uterine muscle (as in myocardial infarction), stretching of the cervix during… Continue reading Labor


The  majority  of  couples  worldwide  expect  to have children, and few ever contemplate the possibility that they will be unable to do so. Yet at least 1 in 10 couples experiences difficulty in becoming pregnant, a stressor that can rank among the most emotionally taxing crises of adulthood. What Is Infertility? About one fourth of… Continue reading Infertility

Infant Mortality

Infant  mortality  is  defined  as  the  death  of  an infant prior to its first birthday. This definition clearly excludes death in utero, or stillborn infants. Although there has been a gradual reduction in the worldwide rate of infant mortality over the last 20 years, this remains a significant public health concern, as infant death continues… Continue reading Infant Mortality


Infancy ranges in age from the moment of birth to about 2 years of age when the young child begins to use words to make sentences. In fact, the word “infant” means literally “one who is unable to speak.” Infancy is unique in that it is the earliest stage of life outside of the womb… Continue reading Infancy