Trade Unions / Labor Unions

Unions—or more specifically, labor unions or trade unions— are found throughout the world and can be broadly defined as associations of workers, the purpose of which is to represent the working interests of their members with respect to wages, hours, grievance procedures, and working conditions, through collective bargaining with the employer. Collective bargaining is a… Continue reading Trade Unions / Labor Unions

Scientist-Practitioner Model

According to the scientist-practitioner model, psychologists are both practitioners who apply knowledge and scientists who base their activities on sound research in the profession. Some individuals may function more fully as scientists, conducting research and publishing their findings, whereas others may devote their lives to its application, but each has a keen respect for the… Continue reading Scientist-Practitioner Model

Scientific Management

Scientific management is the umbrella term for practice and research that advocates making organizations more efficient by systematically working to improve the efficiency of workers. The work of individuals associated with this movement, such as Frederick Winslow Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt, lives on in the current management approaches of statistical process… Continue reading Scientific Management

Project A

Project A was the name applied by the U.S. Army to its contribution to the Joint-Service Job Performance Measurement/Enlistment Standards (JPM) Project sponsored by the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1982. Lasting until 1989, Project A—which now also comprises the follow-on Career Force project (examining performance during soldiers’ second tours of duty and spanning 1990-1994)—is… Continue reading Project A

Human Relations Movement

Viewing the Hawthorne Studies as the linchpin that connected scientific management to new thinking and practice, the human relations movement is the result. This entry approaches the human relations movement from three vantage points: Genesis and growth of the movement Key concepts and practices of the human relations movement Role of the movement in shaping… Continue reading Human Relations Movement