Subliminal Perception

Subliminal PerceptionThe term subliminal is derived from the terms sub (below) and limen (threshold), and it refers to perception so subtle it cannot reach conscious awareness. Most of the research on subliminal perception is done on visual subliminal perception. For instance, one can flash words or pictures so quickly on a computer screen (generally faster than 10-15 milliseconds) that perceivers have the feeling they do not see anything at all. In other words, they are not consciously aware of the presented words or pictures. However, such visual stimuli are processed unconsciously, and they can have brief and subtle effects on our feeling and thinking. In addition, some research has been done on auditory subliminal perception. No reliable scientific evidence exists, however, for psychological effects of auditory subliminal perception.

The idea of an objective “threshold’ is misleading. No objective threshold exists for conscious perception. Whether a briefly presented stimulus reaches conscious awareness depends on many different factors, including individual differences. The threshold is merely subjective.

Effects of subliminal perception are generally small and not easy to establish in controlled laboratory research. However, a few findings are reasonably well established, the most prominent being subliminal mere exposure; Repeated subliminal exposure to a stimulus (for example a picture) leads perceivers to like this picture a little more. Effects of mere exposure have even been obtained for stimuli that were perceived for only one millisecond. Perceivers can to some extent infer the valence (is something good or bad?) from subliminal stimuli. This is shown in research on the subliminal perception of short positive (e.g., sun) and negative (e.g., death) words.

Subliminal perception is controversial mainly because of the notion of subliminal persuasion: The strategy that may be used by marketers or politicians to deliberately influence customers or voters subliminally. In 1957, James Vicary claimed that he increased the sale of cola and popcorn in a New Jersey cinema by subliminally flashing “Drink Coke” and “Eat popcorn” during movies. This however, turned out to be a myth. Perhaps because of the media attention subliminal perception and persuasion sometimes receives, most of the American population does believe subliminal persuasion to have far reaching consequences. However, although subliminal perception exists, research shows the effects to be minor and usually short-lived. There is no scientific reason to believe it can substantially change consumer behavior.


  1. Dijksterhuis, A., Aarts, H., & Smith, P. K. (2005). The power of the subliminal: Subliminal perception and possible applications. In R. R. Hassin, J. S. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious. New York: Oxford University Press.
  2. Dijksterhuis, A., & van Knippenberg, A. (1998). The relation between perception and behavior or how to win a game of Trivial Pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 865-877.