Type A and B Personality

Personality  differences  among  individuals  can  be explained  in  relation  to  their  individual  differences in need patterns. Individuals possess various needs—very  basic  ones,  such  as  the  consumption of  food  and  avoidance  of  pain;  and  secondary ones,  such  as  achievement,  affiliation,  and  dominance.  These  primary  and  secondary  needs  have the  potential  to  influence  an  individual’s  pattern of… Continue reading Type A and B Personality

Personality Tests and Sports

Personality is typically defined as a person’s distinctive and enduring (i.e., cross-situational) thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the person’s reactions to life situations. Personality traits are  also  defined  as  specific  properties  that  predispose a person to react in certain ways in given classes  of  situations—sport,  for  example.  Some personality  traits  are  genetically  determined  and… Continue reading Personality Tests and Sports

Perfectionism in Sport

Perfectionism  is  a  personality  disposition  characterized  by  striving  for  flawlessness  and  setting  exceedingly  high  standards  for  performance, accompanied  by  tendencies  for  overly  critical evaluations.  It  is  a  disposition  that  may  pervade all  areas  of  life,  particularly  areas  in  which  performance plays as major role (e.g., work, school). Therefore, it comes as no surprise that perfectionism … Continue reading Perfectionism in Sport

Optimism in Sport

Optimism  is  an  expectation  for  positive  or  desirable  outcomes  to  occur.  Viewed  by  some  as  an inherent  and  evolutionarily  adaptive  aspect  of human  biology,  it  has  been  examined  by  psychologists both as a relatively stable dispositional trait  (“big  optimism”)  and  as  a  less  stable,  situation-specific  state  of  mind  (“little  optimism”). In its dispositional form, optimism… Continue reading Optimism in Sport

Mental Toughness in Sports

Athletes are confronted with a variety of stressors, challenges,  and  adversities,  external  (e.g.,  hostile crowds, referee errors, challenged by an opponent, sport  and  life  balance)  and  internal  (e.g.,  fatigue, self-doubt, emotional instability), which are characteristic of the training and competition contexts of  sport.  Some  athletes  manage  these  demands or  challenges  positively,  either  having  a  smooth… Continue reading Mental Toughness in Sports