Development




This article on development in school psychology provides an in-depth exploration into the intricate interplay between developmental theories and school psychology practices. Drawing upon seminal works, including Erikson’s psychosocial stages and Kohlberg’s moral developmental stages, the article emphasizes the importance of understanding nuanced developmental milestones, from the sensorimotor stage to the challenges of puberty. Highlighting concepts such as egocentrism, perseveration, and the unique developmental characteristics of preschoolers, the article underscores the vital role school psychologists play in tailoring educational strategies to cater to diverse developmental needs. As students traverse through various phases of growth, this comprehensive analysis offers insights into the dynamic landscape of human development and its profound implications for educational settings.

Introduction

School psychology has consistently evolved in its practices and theoretical underpinnings, intricately interwoven with our understanding of human development. At its core, the discipline acknowledges that students’ learning, behavior, and overall well-being are influenced by myriad developmental factors (National Association of School Psychologists [NASP], 2015). A comprehensive understanding of developmental theories offers valuable insights into the complexities of students’ experiences and facilitates effective interventions tailored to their developmental stages.

Academic Writing, Editing, Proofreading, And Problem Solving Services

Get 10% OFF with 24START discount code


Piaget’s groundbreaking work, for instance, postulated that children undergo sequential stages of cognitive development, with each stage offering unique challenges and capacities (Piaget, 1952). The sensorimotor stage, a fundamental component of Piaget’s theory, illustrates the developmental processes infants and toddlers navigate, impacting subsequent cognitive and emotional growth. Further enriching this perspective, Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development delineate the socio-emotional tasks that individuals grapple with throughout their lifespan, highlighting critical junctures such as trust in infancy and identity formation in adolescence (Erikson, 1968).

As these theories suggest, development is multifaceted, encompassing cognitive, emotional, social, and physiological dimensions. In the realm of school psychology, a nuanced understanding of these developmental trajectories ensures that interventions are not only effective but also relevant and resonant with students’ lived experiences.

Historical Overview of Developmental Theories

Understanding the historical roots of developmental theories is essential to grasp the foundation upon which modern school psychology is built. From ancient times to the present, theories about how humans develop, both cognitively and socially, have influenced pedagogical approaches and the broader discipline of psychology.

Ancient Philosophies

Historically, philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle speculated on the nature of childhood and the processes by which humans acquire knowledge. Plato believed in the innate nature of knowledge, while Aristotle leaned towards the idea that the mind is a blank slate, filled through experiences and observations (Plato, trans. 380 BC/2004; Aristotle, trans. 350 BC/1930). These foundational ideas laid the groundwork for future developmental theories, with the debate on nature versus nurture continuing through the ages.

Emergence of Formal Developmental Theories

The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed a surge in interest in human development. Pioneers like Sigmund Freud proposed theories like psychosexual development, emphasizing unconscious drives and their implications in shaping behavior (Freud, 1905). However, his approach, focusing primarily on early childhood experiences and their lasting impact, was soon complemented and sometimes challenged by other theorists.

Cognitive Developmental Theories

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development was groundbreaking in its detailed account of the stages children pass through from infancy to adolescence (Piaget, 1952). His identification of stages like the sensorimotor stage reshaped understanding about how children think, learn, and perceive the world. This theory offered invaluable insights for educators and psychologists, emphasizing the need for age-appropriate learning materials and methods.

Socio-emotional Theories

Erik Erikson expanded on Freud’s work, delineating eight stages of psychosocial development. His framework provided insights into challenges faced during different life stages, such as trust versus mistrust during infancy and identity versus role confusion during adolescence (Erikson, 1968). This holistic view, encompassing the entire lifespan, emphasized the social nature of human development.

Moral Development

Lawrence Kohlberg, inspired by Piaget’s work, explored the evolution of moral reasoning. His stages of moral development illustrated how individuals progress from a rule-based understanding of morality in childhood to a more abstract, principled understanding in adulthood (Kohlberg, 1976).

Through time, these historical theories have not only informed the practices of educators and school psychologists but have also faced revisions, criticisms, and expansions, reflecting the ever-evolving nature of the field.

Theories of Human Development

The study of human development seeks to understand how and why people change over time. Various theories offer different perspectives on how developmental processes unfold, with each emphasizing particular aspects or stages of life. While numerous developmental theories exist, some have had a profound influence on the field of school psychology.

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget, a Swiss developmental psychologist, was a pioneer in understanding how children think. Piaget believed that children pass through four distinct stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational. Each stage is characterized by unique thought processes and ways of understanding the world. For example, the Sensorimotor stage, which lasts from birth to about age 2, is when infants rely heavily on their senses and motor abilities to explore their environment (Piaget, 1952).

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson expanded on Freud’s psychosexual stages by emphasizing the role of society and culture. His theory encompasses eight stages, each marked by a specific psychosocial conflict that individuals must resolve to develop healthily. For instance, during the adolescent stage, the primary conflict is between “Identity vs. Role Confusion,” where individuals strive to find their place in the world (Erikson, 1968).

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development

Lawrence Kohlberg’s work focuses on how individuals understand right from wrong. He proposed three primary stages of moral development: Pre-conventional, Conventional, and Post-conventional. These stages, further divided into two sub-stages each, illustrate the progression from making moral decisions based on personal outcomes to a more abstract understanding of ethical principles (Kohlberg, 1976).

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Lev Vygotsky emphasized the critical role that social interactions play in cognitive development. He introduced the concept of the “Zone of Proximal Development,” which is the gap between what a learner can do independently and what they can achieve with guidance. Vygotsky’s theory underscores the importance of social learning and the role of culture in shaping cognitive development (Vygotsky, 1978).

While these theories offer structured frameworks for understanding development, it’s essential to recognize that individual growth is complex, influenced by numerous factors like genetics, environment, culture, and personal experiences. School psychologists often integrate insights from multiple theories to create a holistic understanding of a student’s development and to inform interventions.

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development emphasizes the influence of social experience across an individual’s entire lifespan. Diverging from the Freudian focus on sexuality, Erikson centered on the socio-cultural aspects of one’s life. He believed that development is determined by the interaction of an individual’s needs and desires with the restrictions and supports of the surrounding society. His theory details eight distinct stages, each marked by a specific crisis or challenge, which must be resolved for the individual to continue onto the next stage in a healthy manner.

  1. Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 18 months): During this stage, an infant’s primary concern is whether the world is a predictable and safe place. Based on the consistency and reliability of caregivers, they will either develop a sense of trust or mistrust towards the world (Erikson, 1963).
  2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 months to 3 years): As toddlers begin to explore their world, they strive for autonomy and self-control. Successful navigation leads to feelings of autonomy, while failure can result in feelings of shame and doubt (Erikson, 1964).
  3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 5 years): At this preschool age, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and social interactions. If they are encouraged and supported, they will develop a sense of initiative. Conversely, if they are restricted or criticized, feelings of guilt may arise (Erikson, 1964).
  4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 12 years): School-age children strive for competence and self-esteem. Successful experiences lead to a sense of industry and belief in one’s ability to achieve, while repeated failures cultivate feelings of inferiority (Erikson, 1968).
  5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12 to 18 years): Adolescence is marked by the search for self. This stage involves refining a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles, values, and beliefs. If adolescents can navigate this stage, they emerge with a strong sense of identity. Failing to do so can lead to role confusion or identity crisis (Erikson, 1968).
  6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood): Young adults face the challenge of forming intimate relationships. Successfully establishing close bonds leads to the virtue of love. Conversely, avoiding intimacy out of fear of rejection or commitment results in feelings of isolation (Erikson, 1982).
  7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood): This stage is characterized by the need to create and nurture things that will outlast oneself, often through parenting or mentoring. Success in this stage results in feelings of generativity, while failure results in stagnation and superficial involvement in the world (Erikson, 1982).
  8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood): In old age, individuals reflect on their lives. Success at this stage is marked by feelings of wisdom and acceptance. However, looking back with regret leads to feelings of bitterness and despair (Erikson, 1982).

Erikson’s stages provide a comprehensive framework for understanding how social interactions and challenges shape individual development across the lifespan. His emphasis on the social nature of human development underscores the interconnectedness of personal growth and societal influences. School psychologists often reference these stages when considering the developmental challenges faced by students and devising interventions tailored to their specific needs.

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development

Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development offers a sequential understanding of how individuals formulate ethical and moral decisions throughout their lifespan. Inspired by Piaget’s work on cognitive development and through extensive research using moral dilemmas, Kohlberg proposed that moral reasoning evolves in stages, where each successive stage represents a more sophisticated mode of thinking (Kohlberg, 1981). His work has been particularly influential in educational psychology and pedagogy as it provides insights into students’ moral reasoning and its implications for classroom interactions and the broader school community.

  1. Pre-Conventional Level:
    • Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation: At this stage, individuals base their moral decisions on fear of punishment. The main concern is avoiding negative consequences rather than any inherent sense of right or wrong.
    • Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange: Morality at this stage is driven by self-interest. Actions are considered right if they fulfill individual needs, with occasional consideration for others’ needs as part of an exchange (Kohlberg & Hersh, 1977).
  2. Conventional Level:
    • Stage 3: Good Interpersonal Relationships: Here, individuals base their moral decisions on societal roles and expectations. They strive for approval from others by being “good” and maintaining interpersonal relationships.
    • Stage 4: Maintaining the Social Order: Moral reasoning is governed by a respect for authority, rules, and societal order. Individuals believe that rules are crucial to maintaining societal structure and order (Kohlberg, 1976).
  3. Post-Conventional Level:
    • Stage 5: Social Contract and Individual Rights: People begin to understand that rules are not absolute but can be modified for the greater good. Morality is determined based on democratic processes and an emphasis on individual rights.
    • Stage 6: Universal Principles: This stage is marked by the adherence to universal ethical principles that are self-chosen. Justice, dignity, and equality serve as guiding moral principles, even if they conflict with laws and rules (Kohlberg, 1981).

While Kohlberg’s theory has been praised for its comprehensive view of moral development, critics argue that it is too focused on reasoning rather than action and overlooks cultural variations in moral perspectives (Snarey, 1985; Turiel, 2006). Additionally, Gilligan (1982) noted that the theory might not adequately address differences in male and female moral development.

Despite these critiques, Kohlberg’s stages remain a foundational component in the field of moral development and education. For school psychologists, understanding these stages aids in tailoring interventions, fostering moral growth, and promoting ethical behavior in school settings.

Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory

Jean Piaget, a renowned Swiss developmental psychologist, introduced a revolutionary theory delineating how children’s thinking processes change as they mature. Central to his perspective was the notion that children are not merely passive recipients of information; instead, they are active learners who construct knowledge about the world through their experiences (Piaget, 1952). His theory of cognitive development comprises a series of stages, each characterized by specific thought patterns and abilities. Understanding these stages provides invaluable insights for educators and school psychologists, enabling them to align instruction and interventions with children’s cognitive capabilities.

  1. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years):
    • During this stage, infants and toddlers understand their surroundings primarily through sensory experiences and motor actions. Towards the end of this phase, they begin to exhibit the early signs of symbolic thinking, as demonstrated by the development of object permanence, the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they’re out of sight (Piaget, 1954).
  2. Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years):
    • Children in this stage are marked by egocentrism, a limited ability to see things from another’s viewpoint. Their thinking is also characterized by animism (attributing life-like qualities to inanimate objects) and centration (focusing on one aspect of a situation while neglecting others). During this period, children’s language abilities see rapid expansion, and they begin to engage in pretend play, further highlighting their burgeoning symbolic thinking skills (Piaget, 1964).
  3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 years):
    • Children in the concrete operational stage begin to think more logically about concrete events. They start to grasp the concept of conservation, understanding that certain properties of objects—like volume or number—remain unchanged even if their outward appearance alters. However, their ability to think abstractly or hypothetically is still limited during this stage (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969).
  4. Formal Operational Stage (12 years and older):
    • As adolescents enter this stage, they begin to think more abstractly and hypothetically. They can now reason about concepts that aren’t directly available to the senses and can contemplate future possibilities. This allows them to engage in advanced reasoning, problem-solving, and moral thinking (Piaget, 1972).

While Piaget’s theory laid the foundation for understanding cognitive development, subsequent research has illuminated nuances and variations. Some children may progress through the stages at different rates, and cultural and environmental factors can influence developmental trajectories (Lourenço & Machado, 1996). Additionally, researchers like Vygotsky have emphasized the role of social interactions and cultural tools in cognitive development, slightly contrasting with Piaget’s more individual-centric approach (Vygotsky, 1978).

Nevertheless, Piaget’s theory remains instrumental for school psychologists and educators. It offers a framework to comprehend the cognitive abilities and limitations of students at various age levels, helping professionals tailor instruction and support accordingly.

Developmental Milestones: From Infancy to Adolescence

Developmental milestones refer to the behavioral or physical checkpoints in children’s development as they grow. These milestones provide a general pattern of developmental expectations at various stages. While individual variations are to be expected—and some children might reach certain milestones sooner or later than their peers—consistent delays could be indicative of potential developmental concerns that might warrant further evaluation (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2009). Understanding these milestones is fundamental for educators and school psychologists as they craft age-appropriate learning environments and interventions.

  1. Infancy (0-2 years):
    • Motor Skills: This period witnesses rapid growth in both fine and gross motor skills. By six months, most infants can roll over, and by 12 months, many are taking their initial steps (CDC, 2020).
    • Cognitive Development: Infants progress from reflexive reactions to more intentional interactions with their surroundings. The concept of object permanence develops, marking the cognitive realization that objects exist even when out of view (Piaget, 1954).
    • Social and Emotional Development: Attachment to primary caregivers becomes evident, and basic emotions like joy, anger, and fear are expressed (Ainsworth, 1973).
  2. Preschoolers (3-5 years):
    • Motor Skills: Most children can run, jump, and climb stairs. Fine motor skills like holding pencils and drawing circles or squares also emerge (CDC, 2020).
    • Cognitive Development: Preschoolers showcase increasing memory skills, better attention spans, and a growing imagination. They start understanding concepts like numbers, size, and time (Piaget, 1964).
    • Social and Emotional Development: Social play becomes more prevalent, with children forming friendships and demonstrating cooperative play. They start understanding others’ emotions and exhibit a sense of gender identity (Erikson, 1963).
  3. School-age (6-12 years):
    • Motor Skills: There is refinement in both gross and fine motor skills. Children participate in complex games and sports, and they can write, draw, and craft with increasing precision (CDC, 2020).
    • Cognitive Development: Concrete operational thinking emerges, enabling logical thinking about real-world scenarios. However, abstract thinking is still budding (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969).
    • Social and Emotional Development: Friendships become more central, and peer approval becomes crucial. The sense of competence in academic and social realms grows (Erikson, 1968).
  4. Adolescence (13-19 years):
    • Physical Development: Puberty marks this stage, with rapid physical growth and sexual maturation. The onset and progression of puberty can vary greatly among individuals (Tanner, 1962).
    • Cognitive Development: Abstract thinking blossoms, allowing adolescents to contemplate possibilities, ideologies, and to challenge established norms (Piaget, 1972).
    • Social and Emotional Development: The quest for identity, influenced by Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, becomes central. Adolescents grapple with identity vs. role confusion and increasingly rely on peer groups for social validation (Erikson, 1968).

In understanding these milestones, it’s pivotal to consider cultural, socioeconomic, and individual differences that can influence the pace and nature of development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Nonetheless, these milestones offer invaluable guides for school psychologists and educators in fostering optimal learning and emotional well-being.

Challenges in Developmental Understandings

The intricate journey of human development, especially in the context of school psychology, is not without challenges. Various factors pose difficulties in understanding, interpreting, and applying developmental knowledge effectively in educational settings. As school psychologists and educators strive to accommodate and promote the holistic development of students, they grapple with multiple complexities rooted in the diverse nature of growth and the multifaceted context of learning environments.

Individual Variability

A significant challenge arises from the vast individual differences in developmental trajectories. Not all children reach milestones at the same time, and some might display asynchronous development, excelling in one domain while showing delays in another (Sameroff, 2010). Thus, relying solely on normative milestones can be misleading and might not address the unique needs of every student.

Cultural and Socioeconomic Influences

Developmental theories, especially earlier ones, were primarily based on Western, middle-class populations. This raises concerns about their universal applicability. Children from different cultural or socioeconomic backgrounds may display different developmental patterns, and their milestones might differ from the standard norms (Rogoff, 2003). Recognizing and valuing these differences is essential for a comprehensive developmental understanding.

Overemphasis on Discrete Stages

While stage-based theories like those of Piaget or Erikson provide valuable insights, an over-reliance on discrete developmental stages can be limiting. Human development is continuous, and not every child transitions through these stages in a clear-cut manner. There’s a risk of oversimplifying the fluid nature of development by confining it to rigid stages (Lerner & Overton, 2008).

Interplay of Biology and Environment

Disentangling the effects of nature (biology, genetics) and nurture (environment, upbringing) has long been a challenge in developmental psychology. While certain traits or behaviors may have genetic underpinnings, the environment plays a significant role in modulating developmental outcomes. Thus, attributing a particular trait or behavior solely to genetic or environmental factors can be oversimplistic (Plomin, 2011).

Rapidly Changing Societal Contexts

In our ever-evolving world, children today face developmental challenges and contexts that were not present or prevalent decades ago. For instance, the digital age presents new cognitive and social milestones, along with potential threats like cyberbullying. Developmental theories need continuous updating to remain relevant in changing societal landscapes (Prensky, 2001).

Addressing these challenges requires a flexible and integrative approach to developmental understanding. School psychologists and educators must be equipped with not only the foundational knowledge of developmental theories but also an awareness of the limitations and broader contextual factors that influence a child’s journey. This comprehensive perspective ensures that interventions and educational strategies remain child-centric, sensitive, and effective.

Practical Implications for School Psychologists

A deep understanding of developmental theories and milestones is paramount for school psychologists. This comprehension goes beyond academic interest, directly influencing their roles in assessment, intervention, counseling, and consultation within school settings. Being in the unique position of bridging the gap between educational practice and psychological knowledge, school psychologists play a crucial part in translating developmental theories into actionable strategies.

  1. Individualized Assessment and Intervention: Recognizing that children’s developmental trajectories are unique and can vary widely is the cornerstone of effective practice. Developmental knowledge allows school psychologists to tailor their assessments and interventions to meet the specific needs of each child, ensuring more accurate diagnoses and effective therapeutic approaches (Jimerson, Graydon, & Skokut, 2006).
  2. Educational Strategy Design: An insight into developmental milestones can guide teachers and educational planners in designing curricula that align with students’ cognitive and socio-emotional stages. School psychologists can provide valuable input, ensuring that teaching methods are age-appropriate and cater to diverse developmental needs (Oswald, Safran, & Johanson, 2005).
  3. Promotion of Social-Emotional Development: By understanding Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development or Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development, school psychologists can better support students in navigating the complex social and emotional challenges they encounter. This can be particularly vital during transitional periods, such as moving from elementary to middle school or during the onset of puberty (Erikson, 1968).
  4. Facilitating Parent-Teacher Collaboration: A shared understanding of developmental principles among educators and parents can lead to more cohesive support systems for students. School psychologists can play a pivotal role in fostering this collaboration, ensuring that both teachers and parents are equipped with the knowledge to provide consistent developmental support (Sheridan, Eagle, Cowan, & Mickelson, 2001).
  5. Cultural Sensitivity and Inclusivity: Recognizing the influence of cultural and socioeconomic contexts on development can guide school psychologists in their practices, ensuring that assessments and interventions are culturally sensitive and inclusive. This perspective is particularly vital in diverse school settings where students come from varied backgrounds (Sue & Sue, 2003).
  6. Continuous Professional Development: The field of developmental psychology is ever-evolving. School psychologists must continually update their knowledge, ensuring that their practices reflect the latest research findings and contemporary developmental understandings (Hoagwood & Erwin, 1997).

For school psychologists, the practical applications of developmental knowledge are manifold. By integrating this understanding into their daily practice, they can ensure that students receive the support they need to navigate their developmental journey successfully and reach their full potential.

Conclusion

The intricate tapestry of human development, woven with threads of cognitive, socio-emotional, and moral growth, holds profound implications for the field of school psychology. As students navigate the labyrinthine path of childhood and adolescence, developmental theories offer a lens through which their behaviors, emotions, and thoughts can be understood. Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, Kohlberg’s moral developmental stages, Piaget’s cognitive theories, and an understanding of developmental milestones shed light on the myriad challenges and triumphs students face, guiding school psychologists in their multifaceted roles.

A synthesis of this knowledge equips school psychologists with the tools to tailor assessments, design interventions, and collaborate effectively with educational stakeholders, ensuring a holistic approach to student well-being. The intersection of developmental theories with school psychology is not merely a confluence of academic interests. It is the foundation upon which the edifice of student support is built.

Moreover, as the field of developmental psychology continues to evolve, so too must the practices of school psychologists. By staying abreast of the latest research and integrating these insights into their work, school psychologists can ensure they provide the best support possible for their students.

In closing, a thorough grasp of developmental principles doesn’t just enrich the repertoire of school psychologists. It profoundly impacts the lives of the students they serve, helping to shape their academic journeys, emotional landscapes, and ultimately, their futures (Jimerson, Skokut, & Myers, 2008; Erikson, 1968; Piaget, 1952).

References:

  1. Ainsworth, M. D. (1973). The development of infant-mother attachment. In B. Caldwell & H. Ricciuti (Eds.), Review of Child Development Research (Vol. 3, pp. 1-94). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Caring for Your Baby and Young Child, 5th Edition: Birth to Age 5. Bantam Books.
  3. Aristotle. (trans. 350 BC/1930). Nicomachean Ethics. Oxford University Press.
  4. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Harvard University Press.
  5. CDC (2020). Important Milestones: Your Child By Age. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from CDC website.
  6. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). W. W. Norton & Company.
  7. Erikson, E. H. (1964). Insight and responsibility. W. W. Norton & Company.
  8. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. W. W. Norton & Company.
  9. Erikson, E. H. (1982). The life cycle completed. W. W. Norton & Company.
  10. Freud, S. (1905). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. Standard Edition.
  11. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Harvard University Press.
  12. Hoagwood, K., & Erwin, H. D. (1997). Effectiveness of school-based mental health services for children: A 10-year research review. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6(4), 435-451.
  13. Jimerson, S. R., Graydon, K., & Skokut, M. (2006). Best practices in school crisis prevention and intervention. National Association of School Psychologists.
  14. Jimerson, S. R., Skokut, M., & Myers, D. (2008). Enhancing the developmental context of schooling: Recommendations and advances for school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 452-460.
  15. Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
  16. Kohlberg, L. (1981). The philosophy of moral development: Moral stages and the idea of justice. Harper & Row.
  17. Kohlberg, L., & Hersh, R. H. (1977). Moral development: A review of the theory. Theory Into Practice, 16(2), 53-59.
  18. Lerner, R. M., & Overton, W. F. (2008). Exemplifying the integrations of the relational developmental system: Synthesizing theory, research, and application to promote positive development and social justice. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23(3), 245-255.
  19. Lourenço, O., & Machado, A. (1996). In defense of Piaget’s theory: A reply to 10 common criticisms. Psychological Review, 103(1), 143.
  20. National Association of School Psychologists. (2015). Standards for graduate preparation of school psychologists. Author.
  21. Oswald, M. M., Safran, S. P., & Johanson, G. (2005). Preventing trouble: Making schools safer places using positive behavior supports. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(3), 265-278.
  22. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. International Universities Press.
  23. Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York: Basic Books.
  24. Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(3), 176-186.
  25. Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books.
  26. Piaget, J. (1972). The psychology of intelligence. Totowa, NJ: Littlefield, Adams.
  27. Plato. (trans. 380 BC/2004). Meno. Penguin Classics.
  28. Plomin, R. (2011). Genetics and education. Routledge.
  29. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants Part 1. On the horizon, 9(5), 1-6.
  30. Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford University Press.
  31. Sameroff, A. (2010). A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child Development, 81(1), 6-22.
  32. Sheridan, S. M., Eagle, J. W., Cowan, R. J., & Mickelson, W. T. (2001). The effects of conjoint behavioral consultation: Results of a 4-year investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 39(5), 361-385.
  33. Snarey, J. (1985). The cross-cultural universality of social-moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research. Psychological Bulletin, 97(2), 202.
  34. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2003). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice. John Wiley & Sons.
  35. Tanner, J. M. (1962). Growth at adolescence: with a general consideration of the effects of hereditary and environmental factors upon growth and maturation from birth to maturity. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  36. Turiel, E. (2006). The development of morality. In W. Damon, R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 789-857). Wiley.
  37. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.