Ethical and Legal Issues




This article delves into the intricate ethical and legal challenges encountered in the realm of school psychology, emphasizing the crucial interplay of principles such as confidentiality, informed consent, and professional supervision. Drawing upon historical perspectives and contemporary situations, the article provides insights into nuanced issues such as abuse and neglect, the experiences of homeless students, and the unique challenges faced by latchkey children. Guided by both the ethical codes of the profession and the legal mandates of the broader societal context, school psychologists navigate these challenges with an unwavering commitment to student welfare and rights. This exploration underscores the imperative of an evolving ethical consciousness in addressing both longstanding and emerging concerns in school psychology.

Introduction

School psychology, as a professional discipline, melds the principles of psychology and education to address the myriad challenges faced by students, educators, and families. Rooted in both therapeutic and academic foundations, the field is tasked with the dual responsibilities of understanding intricate psychological processes and ensuring that educational environments foster optimal growth and development (Fagan & Wise, 2007). As such, school psychologists are frequently confronted with complex scenarios that have ethical and legal ramifications. Navigating these scenarios requires a profound understanding of ethical guidelines paired with a comprehensive grasp of legal mandates and considerations.

Academic Writing, Editing, Proofreading, And Problem Solving Services

Get 10% OFF with 24START discount code


Historically, the emergence of school psychology as a distinct profession has been driven by societal changes, advances in educational policies, and a growing understanding of child and adolescent development. This evolutionary trajectory has consistently highlighted the importance of ethical considerations, given the vulnerable population with which these professionals work (Sheridan & Gutkin, 2000). In more recent times, with increasing cultural diversity, technological advancements, and evolving familial structures, the scope of ethical and legal issues has broadened. Topics such as confidentiality, informed consent, and the nuanced challenges faced by specific groups like latchkey children or those experiencing homelessness have gained prominence in discussions and professional training.

While the primary role of a school psychologist is to support student wellbeing and academic achievement, they must also serve as ethical pillars in educational settings, ensuring that rights are protected, and legal mandates are met. This intersection of ethics and legality forms the crux of many challenges in the field, necessitating a constant re-evaluation of practices and policies in light of evolving standards and societal expectations (Jacob & Hartshorne, 2007).

Ethical Principles in School Psychology

The ethical foundation of school psychology is built upon a set of guiding principles that underscore the paramount importance of the welfare of students, families, and the broader school community. These principles, while not exhaustive, set a direction and framework within which school psychologists operate, ensuring that their practices are grounded in moral considerations that prioritize the best interests of the individuals they serve.

  1. Respect for the Dignity of Persons and Peoples: Central to the ethical practice in school psychology is the respect for individual and cultural differences. Every student, regardless of their background, deserves to be treated with dignity, recognizing their unique attributes and potential. This principle extends to understanding and valuing cultural, ethnic, and individual differences, and avoiding biases or preconceived notions that might influence professional judgment (NASP, 2010).
  2. Professional Competence and Responsibility: School psychologists are expected to provide services and render opinions based on their areas of competence. Continuous professional development, engagement in research, and staying updated with the latest advancements in the field are inherent responsibilities. Moreover, they should always acknowledge the boundaries of their expertise and refrain from misrepresenting their qualifications or competencies (Bodenhorn & Skaggs, 2005).
  3. Integrity in Professional Relationships: Trust is a cornerstone in the relationship between school psychologists and those they serve. This involves being transparent, honest, and ensuring that professional decisions are not influenced by personal interests or gains. When conflicts of interest arise, they should be disclosed and managed appropriately to ensure that the wellbeing of the student remains the focal point (Jacob & Hartshorne, 2007).
  4. Respect for Law and the Relationship of Law with Ethics: While ethics lays down the moral framework, laws provide the legal boundaries. School psychologists need to be well-acquainted with both, understanding that while laws set the minimum standards, ethics often drive professionals to exceed these benchmarks in pursuit of the highest standards of care (Rapport, 2008).
  5. Social Responsibility: Given their pivotal role within educational settings, school psychologists have a broader responsibility to contribute positively to the school community, advocate for the rights of students and families, and work collaboratively with other professionals to create a conducive learning environment (Jimerson & Oakland, 2007).

These ethical principles are the backbone of the profession, informing not only the day-to-day practices but also guiding decision-making in complex, ambiguous situations. They serve as a constant reminder of the core values of the profession and the inherent responsibility of school psychologists to uphold these values in their practice.

Confidentiality in School Psychology

Confidentiality is a cornerstone of professional practice in school psychology. It not only protects the rights and privacy of students and their families but also establishes trust, which is essential for effective therapeutic and consultative relationships. In the realm of school psychology, confidentiality pertains to the protection of personal and private information shared or observed about a student.

  1. Defining Confidentiality: At its core, confidentiality in school psychology refers to the ethical and legal obligation of professionals to protect information obtained about a student during the course of their professional services, unless there is a valid reason or consent to share such information (Jacob & Decker, 2011).
  2. Limits to Confidentiality: While confidentiality is paramount, it is not absolute. There are circumstances, both ethically and legally, where school psychologists might be required to break confidentiality. Examples include cases of suspected abuse or neglect, where there is a risk of harm to the student or others, or when required by law or court orders (Fagan & Wise, 2007).
  3. Informed Consent and Confidentiality: Informed consent is a pivotal aspect of the confidentiality framework. Before school psychologists begin their services, it is essential that students, and often their guardians, are made aware of the nature of these services, the extent of confidentiality, and its limits. Obtaining informed consent ensures transparency and promotes understanding and trust (Merrell, Ervin, & Peacock, 2012).
  4. Challenges in Maintaining Confidentiality: School settings present unique challenges to maintaining confidentiality. Given the collaborative nature of educational settings, wherein multiple professionals might be involved in the care of a student, information sharing becomes complex. It is crucial for school psychologists to navigate these intricacies, ensuring that only necessary and relevant information is shared, and always with the appropriate safeguards in place (Knauss, 2001).
  5. Promoting Confidentiality in School Settings: School psychologists can foster a culture of confidentiality by providing regular training sessions for school staff, establishing clear protocols for information sharing, and ensuring secure storage and disposal of sensitive student records. It is equally important to engage in open communication with students and their families about confidentiality, helping them understand its importance and their rights (Isaacs, 2003).

Protecting the confidentiality of students is not just an ethical obligation but also a testament to the respect and commitment school psychologists have towards those they serve. By maintaining confidentiality, school psychologists promote a safe environment where students can share and explore their concerns without fear, facilitating more effective interventions and support.

Informed Consent in School Settings

Informed consent is a fundamental ethical and legal principle that underscores the professional practices of school psychologists. It ensures that students and their guardians are well-informed, empowered, and actively involved in decisions regarding psychological services rendered in the school environment. The significance of informed consent extends beyond mere permission to a profound commitment to respect, autonomy, and dignity.

  1. Definition of Informed Consent: In the context of school psychology, informed consent refers to the process wherein students (when appropriate based on age and cognitive development) and their guardians are provided with detailed information about an assessment, intervention, or service. They are then given an opportunity to ask questions and, based on their understanding, decide whether to give permission for the intervention to proceed (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010).
  2. Components of Informed Consent: Genuine informed consent encompasses several elements. The recipient should be provided with clear information about the nature and purpose of the intervention, potential risks and benefits, alternate approaches available, and their right to withdraw consent at any time without negative consequences (Newman & Pollack, 2003).
  3. The Role of Assent in Schools: Particularly for children and adolescents, the concept of assent—wherein the student agrees to participate even though the formal consent is provided by the guardian—is crucial. It recognizes the evolving capacities of children to understand and participate in decisions that affect them (Shaw, 2008).
  4. Challenges in Obtaining Informed Consent: School settings, with their diverse student populations and various stakeholders, can present unique challenges in obtaining genuine informed consent. Factors such as language barriers, cultural differences, and guardians’ unfamiliarity with psychological practices can complicate the process (Jimerson, Brown, & Oakland, 2006).
  5. Strategies to Enhance Informed Consent in Schools: School psychologists should employ clear, jargon-free language, use translators when needed, and provide materials in a culturally sensitive manner. It’s also beneficial to use multiple methods of communication, such as written documentation, verbal explanations, and visual aids, to ensure clarity and understanding (Tharinger, Horton, & Millea, 1990).

By prioritizing informed consent, school psychologists emphasize the importance of collaboration, trust, and mutual respect. This not only safeguards the rights and autonomy of students and their guardians but also sets the stage for more effective and meaningful interventions in the school setting.

Supervision in School Psychology

Supervision is an integral component of professional development and practice in school psychology. It encompasses both the administrative oversight and the clinical guidance provided to school psychologists, especially those in training. Effective supervision ensures that services provided are ethical, evidence-based, and aligned with best practices, safeguarding the welfare of students and the integrity of the profession.

  1. Importance of Supervision: Supervision in school psychology plays a pivotal role in promoting professional growth, enhancing competence, and ensuring ethical adherence (Bernard & Goodyear, 2014). For trainees and less experienced practitioners, supervision provides a platform for reflection, feedback, and skills enhancement.
  2. Models of Supervision: Various models of supervision exist, including developmental models, which emphasize the evolving needs of supervisees throughout their professional growth; and systemic models, which focus on the interaction between the supervisor, supervisee, and the broader school system (Sheridan & Gutkin, 2000).
  3. Ethical Considerations: Ethical issues frequently arise in the context of supervision. It is the supervisor’s responsibility to ensure that confidentiality is maintained, informed consent is obtained for any observations or recordings, and that dual relationships (where the supervisor has multiple roles in relation to the supervisee) are avoided or managed appropriately (Merrell, Ervin, & Gimpel, 2006).
  4. Challenges in Supervision: Several challenges can emerge in the supervisory relationship, including differing expectations, a mismatch in expertise, or cultural misunderstandings. Supervisors must be equipped to address these challenges, using strategies like open communication, continuous training, and cultural competency enhancement (Harrison & Thomas, 2001).
  5. The Future of Supervision in School Psychology: With the increasing diversity in schools and the rapid advancement of technological tools, supervision in school psychology will need to adapt. Remote supervision through digital platforms, increased emphasis on multicultural competence, and the integration of new assessment tools and methodologies are likely to shape the future landscape of supervision (Riley-Tillman, 2013).

Effective supervision not only enhances the professional competence of school psychologists but also contributes to the broader goal of supporting students’ well-being and academic success.

Recognizing and Addressing Abuse and Neglect

Child abuse and neglect are grave and pervasive issues that school psychologists may encounter in their professional roles. Given the considerable time children spend in schools, educators and school psychologists often serve as the first line of defense in identifying and intervening in cases of abuse and neglect. It is crucial for professionals in this realm to understand the signs, implications, and appropriate courses of action when dealing with these situations.

  1. Defining Abuse and Neglect: Abuse can manifest in various forms, including physical, emotional, sexual abuse, and neglect. Neglect, often characterized by the deprivation of essential needs, can be just as detrimental as other forms of abuse (Briere & Scott, 2014).
  2. Signs and Symptoms: Children who face abuse or neglect may exhibit a range of behavioral, emotional, and physical signs. While some indications might be overt, like unexplained bruises or aggressive outbursts, others, such as withdrawal or regression in developmental milestones, may be more subtle. It is imperative to approach these signs with sensitivity and thoroughness (Kenny, 2004).
  3. Legal and Ethical Mandates: In many jurisdictions, school psychologists, along with other educators, are mandated reporters. This designation means they are legally obligated to report suspicions of child abuse or neglect to appropriate authorities. Ethical guidelines, such as those provided by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), further emphasize the responsibility of school psychologists to prioritize student welfare (NASP, 2010).
  4. Role of the School Psychologist: Beyond the legal mandate, school psychologists play a pivotal role in addressing abuse and neglect. This role involves assessment, consultation, and collaboration with other professionals to ensure the child’s safety and well-being. They may also provide direct interventions or counseling to affected students, offering a safe space for them to express their feelings and concerns (Doll, 2008).
  5. Challenges and Considerations: Addressing abuse and neglect is fraught with challenges. Misinterpreting signs, addressing cultural differences in parenting, and navigating the delicate balance between professional responsibility and parental rights can be complex. School psychologists must be equipped with continuous training, cultural competence, and an understanding of the broader family and community systems at play (Crosson-Tower, 2005).
  6. Collaboration and Referral: Collaborating with teachers, social workers, and other professionals is key in these cases. Given the potential complexity and severity of abuse and neglect situations, it is often necessary to refer students and their families to specialized services or agencies that can provide comprehensive support.

In essence, the issue of child abuse and neglect underscores the importance of the school psychologist’s role in ensuring student safety and well-being. Through recognition, reporting, and intervention, these professionals can make a profound difference in the lives of vulnerable students.

Navigating Complex Issues:

Death, Bereavement, Homelessness, and Latchkey Children

School psychologists often encounter students grappling with diverse, complex issues that extend beyond the classroom walls. Among these challenges are death and bereavement, homelessness, and the phenomenon of latchkey children. Understanding and addressing these issues requires both compassion and specialized knowledge.

  1. Death and Bereavement:
    • Understanding Grief in Children: Children’s comprehension and reaction to death vary significantly based on their developmental stage. While younger children may not fully grasp the permanency of death, adolescents might grapple with existential concerns (Worden, 1996).
    • Role of the School Psychologist: School psychologists can support grieving students by offering individual counseling, facilitating grief support groups, and advising teachers on classroom interventions. They play a pivotal role in creating a safe, understanding environment for bereaved students (Goldman, 2004).
  2. Homelessness:
    • The Reality of Student Homelessness: Economic challenges and family disruptions can lead to student homelessness, which subsequently affects their academic and emotional well-being (Masten, Fiat, Labella, & Strack, 2015).
    • Supporting Homeless Students: School psychologists can advocate for these students, ensuring they receive the rights granted to them under laws such as the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Additionally, they can provide counseling and connect families to community resources (Aviles, Anderson, & Davila, 2006).
  3. Latchkey Children:
    • Defining the Latchkey Phenomenon: Latchkey children are those who return to an empty home after school because their parents or guardians are at work. This lack of supervision has raised concerns about their safety and emotional well-being (Belkin, 2008).
    • Interventions and Support: School psychologists can facilitate after-school programs, offer counseling to address potential feelings of isolation, and provide resources to parents on ensuring their children’s safety and well-being during unsupervised hours (Riley & Steinberg, 2004).

Addressing these multifaceted challenges in students’ lives requires school psychologists to be proactive, culturally sensitive, and collaborative. By recognizing and responding to these issues, school psychologists can ensure that students receive the comprehensive support they need to navigate these life challenges successfully.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Assessment and Intervention

Assessment and intervention form core components of school psychology practice. However, they are also areas rife with potential ethical and legal challenges. Navigating these challenges necessitates a comprehensive understanding of both the ethical guidelines set forth by professional organizations and the legal mandates imposed by state and federal authorities.

  1. Ethical Considerations in Assessment:
    • Non-Bias and Fairness: School psychologists are obligated to ensure that assessments are free from cultural, linguistic, and socio-economic biases, guaranteeing fairness and equality in evaluation (Sandoval, Frisby, & Geisinger, 1998).
    • Use of Valid Instruments: Utilizing outdated or non-validated assessment tools can lead to misdiagnoses and inaccurate educational planning. It’s imperative to employ instruments with proven validity and reliability (Kranzler & Floyd, 2013).
  2. Legal Mandates in Assessment:
    • Right to Evaluation: Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), students suspected of having a disability have the legal right to a comprehensive evaluation to determine eligibility for special education services (Yell & Drasgow, 2009).
    • Parental Rights: Parents must be adequately informed about the assessment, its purpose, and have the right to consent or decline (Turnbull, Turnbull, Erwin, & Soodak, 2006).
  3. Ethical and Legal Aspects in Intervention:
    • Beneficence and Nonmaleficence: Interventions should aim to benefit students, ensuring their well-being and avoiding any harm. It’s essential to recognize when an intervention isn’t working and needs modification (Jacob & Hartshorne, 2007).
    • Confidentiality: While it may be necessary to share intervention results with educators and other professionals, confidentiality must be maintained. Only pertinent information should be shared, and student identities should be protected (Koocher & Keith-Spiegel, 2008).
  4. Informed Consent in Interventions:
    • Ensuring Understanding: Prior to initiating any intervention, school psychologists must ensure that both students and their guardians fully comprehend the nature, potential risks, and benefits of the proposed interventions (Bersoff, 1999).
  5. Ongoing Supervision and Review:
    • Monitoring Intervention Outcomes: Interventions need regular monitoring and evaluation to ensure they’re effective. Feedback should be collected from multiple sources, including students, parents, and teachers (Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2008).

Adherence to ethical guidelines and legal mandates not only protects the rights of students but also reinforces the professional integrity of school psychologists. By consistently upholding these standards, school psychologists can offer assessments and interventions that genuinely benefit the student population.

Future Challenges and Evolving Ethical Issues

The landscape of school psychology is not static, evolving alongside shifts in societal values, advancements in research, and technological innovations. As we move forward, the ethical considerations integral to this discipline will inevitably face adaptations, expansions, and recalibrations to remain relevant and effective.

One of the significant future challenges is the integration of technology and digital platforms into the practice of school psychology. While telepsychology and online assessments provide opportunities to reach students who may otherwise be inaccessible, they raise concerns about data privacy, accuracy of online assessments, and the potential loss of critical non-verbal cues that psychologists often rely upon during face-to-face interactions (McMinn, Bearse, Heyne, Smithberger, & Erb, 2011).

Another burgeoning area is the increasing cultural and linguistic diversity in school settings. School psychologists will need to navigate the intersection of cultural norms with psychological practice, ensuring that they provide culturally competent services while avoiding potential biases (Newell, Nastasi, Hatzichristou, Jones, Schanding Jr, & Yetter, 2010). This means not only respecting and understanding diverse cultural backgrounds but also ensuring that assessments and interventions are valid across different cultural groups.

Additionally, the role of school psychologists will expand beyond the traditional boundaries of schools. As societal challenges grow, such as the rise in childhood mental health issues, school psychologists will likely be called upon to engage more with community and even policy-making processes to advocate for the broader mental well-being of students (Nastasi & Varjas, 2013).

In conclusion, as school psychology ventures into the future, ethical considerations will remain at its core, guiding the practice. However, the specifics of these considerations will undoubtedly evolve, requiring practitioners to be proactive, well-informed, and flexible in their approach.

Conclusion

The landscape of school psychology is intricate, necessitating an ongoing commitment from practitioners to navigate the delicate balance between promoting students’ best interests and adhering to ethical and legal guidelines. The emphasis on confidentiality, informed consent, supervision, and the acknowledgment of pressing issues like abuse and neglect underscores the profound responsibility school psychologists bear. Contemporary challenges, such as addressing homelessness and the nuanced needs of latchkey children, further reinforce the profession’s indispensable role in fostering safe and supportive learning environments. As school psychologists continue to address these multifaceted ethical and legal considerations, they carry the beacon of trust, professionalism, and advocacy. In the evolving panorama of educational settings, with technological advancements and shifting societal norms, it is incumbent upon these professionals to stay informed, adaptable, and, most importantly, deeply anchored in the ethical principles that form the bedrock of their practice. Their unwavering dedication ensures that the well-being and developmental needs of students remain paramount, safeguarding the future of education and the holistic growth of young minds (Merrell, Ervin, & Peacock, 2012; Fagan & Wise, 2007).

References:

  1. American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.
  2. Aviles, A. M., Anderson, T. R., & Davila, E. R. (2006). Child and adolescent social-emotional development within the context of school. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11(1), 32-39.
  3. Belkin, L. (2008). The after-school imperative. New York Times Magazine.
  4. Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2014). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  5. Bersoff, D. N. (1999). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
  6. Bodenhorn, N., & Skaggs, G. (2005). Development of the School Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 38(1), 14-28.
  7. Briere, J., & Scott, C. (2014). Principles of trauma therapy: A guide to symptoms, evaluation, and treatment (DSM-5 update). Sage publications.
  8. Crosson-Tower, C. (2005). Understanding child abuse and neglect (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  9. Doll, B. (2008). The challenge of child abuse for school psychologists. School Psychology Review, 16(4), 503-511.
  10. Fagan, T. K., & Wise, P. S. (2007). School psychology: Past, present, and future (3rd ed.). National Association of School Psychologists.
  11. Goldman, L. (2004). Breaking the silence: A guide to helping children with complicated grief. Routledge.
  12. Harrison, P. L., & Thomas, A. (2001). Best practices in school psychology as a problem-solving enterprise. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology IV (pp. 17-36). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
  13. Isaacs, M. L. (2003). Data-based decision making: To share or not to share? That is the question! School Psychology Review, 32(3), 428-437.
  14. Jacob, S., & Decker, D. M. (2011). Ethics and law for school psychologists (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
  15. Jacob, S., & Hartshorne, T. S. (2007). Ethics and law for school psychologists (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
  16. Jimerson, S. R., Brown, J. A., & Oakland, T. D. (2006). Handbook of international school psychology. Sage.
  17. Jimerson, S. R., & Oakland, T. D. (2007). Blending perspectives regarding best practices in school-based interventions. In S. R. Jimerson & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice (pp. 611-627). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  18. Kenny, M. C. (2004). Teachers’ attitudes toward and knowledge of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(12), 1311-1319.
  19. Knauss, L. K. (2001). Ethical and legal issues in school counseling. The Professional School Counselor, 4(4), 244-249.
  20. Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases. Oxford University Press.
  21. Kranzler, J. H., & Floyd, R. G. (2013). Assessing intelligence in children and adolescents: A practical guide. Guilford Press.
  22. Masten, A. S., Fiat, A. E., Labella, M. H., & Strack, R. A. (2015). Educating homeless and highly mobile students: Implications of research on risk and resilience. School Psychology Review, 44(3), 315-330.
  23. McMinn, M. R., Bearse, J., Heyne, L. K., Smithberger, A., & Erb, A. L. (2011). Technology and independent practice: Survey findings and implications. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(3), 176-184.
  24. Merrell, K. W., Ervin, R. A., & Gimpel, G. A. (2006). School psychology for the 21st century: Foundations and practices. Guilford Press.
  25. Merrell, K. W., Ervin, R. A., & Peacock, G. G. (2012). School psychology for the 21st century: Foundations and practices. Guilford Press.
  26. NASP. (2010). Principles for professional ethics. National Association of School Psychologists.
  27. Nastasi, B. K., & Varjas, K. (2013). Social justice and school psychology. The Oxford Handbook of Social Justice in Counseling Psychology, 153-167.
  28. Newell, M. L., Nastasi, B. K., Hatzichristou, C., Jones, J. M., Schanding Jr, G. T., & Yetter, G. (2010). Evidence on multicultural training in school psychology: Recommendations for future directions. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(4), 249-278.
  29. Newman, D. S., & Pollack, D. E. (2003). Ethical and legal issues in school counseling. The Professional School Counselor, 6(3), 180-185.
  30. Rapport, L. J. (2008). Ethical issues in school neuropsychology. In D. C. Miller (Ed.), Best practices in school neuropsychology: Guidelines for effective practice, assessment, and evidence-based intervention (pp. 77-94). John Wiley & Sons.
  31. Riley, D., & Steinberg, J. (2004). Ethics in after-school programs: With an emphasis on child and youth participation. Child and Youth Care Forum, 33(5), 339-359.
  32. Riley-Tillman, T. C. (2013). The role of technology in school psychology training, practice, and communication. In P. L. Harrison & A. Thomas (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology VI (pp. 49-60). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
  33. Sandoval, J., Frisby, C. L., & Geisinger, K. F. (1998). Performance assessment: The state of the art. School Psychology Review, 27(3), 355-366.
  34. Shaw, S. R. (2008). An educational programming framework for a subset of students with diverse learning needs: Borderline intellectual functioning. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(5), 291-299.
  35. Sheridan, S. M., & Gutkin, T. B. (2000). The ecology of school psychology: Examining and changing our paradigm for the 21st century. School Psychology Review, 29(4), 485-502.
  36. Sheridan, S. M., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2008). Conjoint behavioral consultation: Promoting family-school connections and interventions. Springer Science & Business Media.
  37. Tharinger, D. J., Horton, C. B., & Millea, S. (1990). Informed consent with children: Variables affecting psychologists’ deliberations and final decisions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21(4), 279.
  38. Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., Erwin, E. J., & Soodak, L. C. (2006). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust. Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
  39. Worden, J. W. (1996). Children and grief: When a parent dies. Guilford Press.
  40. Yell, M. L., & Drasgow, E. (2009). No child left behind: A guide for professionals. Guilford Press.